Hume Pipe Process for Manufacturing RCC Pipe

Hume Pipe Process for Manufacturing RCC Pipe

Hume pipe is a process to make concrete pipe through RCC pipe making machine. The process is also known as spun pipe. Hume pipe are the traditional reinforced concrete cement pipes make from years old traditional pipe making machine. Hume pipe manufacturing process was invented by Walter Reginald Hume in Australia during the nineteenth century. Hume process was the latest one by that time but now new technologies have overcome the issues faced during Hume process. Hume pipe process is traditional and conventional process still used by many under developed and developing countries. There are many pros and cons to develop RCC pipe through Hume process. New technology includes vertical cast process which is much better than spun pipe process and majority used in developed countries. Hume Pipe process is an old process and very much laborious involving many resources in low production. Quality mainly depends on the skill of operator. Thus need best skilled operator for good production. Automization is less and more human involvement tends to more errors in production. The process is slow and tedious. But this was the only way of producing RCC concrete pipe till the end of nineteen century.

Benefits of Vertical Cast Process

Now, with the advancement and more involvement of latest computer technology in pipe production have found a new technique called vertical cast process used mostly in developed country where human resources are less and costly. This is the best automization technique used in RCC pipe production. Limited labor, faster production and better consistency in quality production are the main advantages of vertical cast process. Developing countries are also using this technology in joint venture to the multi nationals of the developed country for better and fast production of quality concrete pipe for long term usage. RCC concrete pipes are mainly used in sewage and drainage purpose. These pipes are contributing major in Infrastructure development of the country. Thus it needs high quality production of Reinforced concrete cement pipes to make the sewage and draining system more powerful and cost effective. Hume pipe process has been replaced by vertical cast process in many countries. Still its production is unaffected due to high demands and more resources available in the country like India.

Importance of a Concrete Batching Plant

A concrete batching plant is a facility where the ingredients of concrete are mixed and blended skilfully. Once the quality concrete is prepared it is transported to the site on a truck with a revolving drum which is known as transit mixer. The concrete produced out of the concrete batching plant is used in the foundations of building construction, paving materials for roads, plumbing and piping in construction projects etc. So, from this you can make out that how important is the use of concrete in construction equipments. Concrete batching plant is used to mix and blend cement, water, sand and aggregates to form quality concrete without which building any construction project is not possible. It becomes necessary that the concrete batching plant is efficient and speedy in order to complete a construction project as soon as possible. The durability of a construction project highly depends on the quality of the concrete used in that construction project. So, if you require a concrete batching plant for your construction project, then you need to select with lot of precision as the success and failure of your construction project depends on the concrete used which is produced by a concrete batching plant.

Different Types of Concrete Batching Plants

There are various types of concrete batching plants available to suit the specific needs of the construction industry which are given below:-

Transit Mixers

A transit mixer is a truck or trailer with a rotating drum which mixes and blends the concrete while on transit. The transit mixer is very much beneficial for the construction sites which require prompt delivery of freshly mixed concrete. Basically, there are two types of transit mixers, truck mounted transit mixers and trailer mounted transit mixers. When the drum in the transit mixer rotates clock wise, the concrete is being prepared and when it rotates anti clock-wise, it pours the concrete out of the drum.

Concrete Pumps

There can be many places in construction equipment where any other construction equipment cannot reach like on a high rise building or the middle of a long tunnel. In these places, if the concrete is to be poured, then a concrete pump can be of great use. Advanced constructions have become quite easier with the help of concrete pumps.

Ready Mix Concrete Plant

Ready mix concrete plant is a centralized factory or batching plant which is situated near the construction project. The concrete is mixed in the ready mix concrete plant and then transported through a truck or trailer to the construction site. This type of concrete batching plant is advantageous for the small construction projects where the requirement of concrete is in less quantity.

Compact Concrete Batching Plant

The compact concrete batching plant is used to prepare the concrete at the construction site itself. It is used in the construction site where energy saving is the major requirement. It occupies very little space and as it is located at the construction site itself, the concrete can be supplied quickly. Compact concrete batching plant is well known for easy maintenance and low running cost.

Without an efficient concrete batching plant, the successful completion of a construction project is not possible. Thus, if you are planning to select a concrete batching plant for your construction project, then you need to analyze different factors given below:-

  • What type of concrete batching plant you require?
  • How many types of aggregates you will be using?
  • What are the production requirements of your construction project?
  • Is the concrete batching plant to be installed on the construction site or on a different land located at a specific distance?
  • How many hours in a day you need your concrete batching plant to operate?

Still if you are unable to decide which concrete batching plant to be used for your construction project, then you can visit and go through the features of all the different concrete batching plants and decide the one which best suits your construction project.

Introduction to Ready Mix Concrete Plant

The ready mix concrete plant is used to manufacture ready-mix concrete which is used in all the construction projects. The ready-mix concrete is also known as RMC is a mixture of cement, water, sand and aggregates. It is manufactured in a batching plant as per the required specifications of a construction project. RMC (ready mix concrete) commonly refers to the concrete which is freshly pre-mixed and delivered in unhardened state which can form any shape. It is prepared by mixing cement, gravel, crushed stone, sand, water etc., which depends on the type of the construction project. After the preparation of ready mix concrete, it is then delivered to the construction site through truck or transit mixer which is capable of mixing the ingredients of the concrete while travelling. Manufacturing ready mix concrete and delivering through a transit mixer enables the implementation of precise concrete in the construction project making it sturdy, strong and long lasting.

Advantages of Using Ready Mix Concrete Plant

Ready mix concrete plant being on-site concrete mixing plant, enables precision of the mixture and reduces worksite confusion. Before, the concrete was prepared manually, but now it is being prepared using computer controlled operations which is known as ready mix concrete plan having many advantages, some of them are given below:-

  • Facilitates speedy construction through programmed delivery at site and mechanized operation with consequent economy.
  • The ready mix concrete plant decreases labour, site supervising cost and project time. It also helps in proper control and economy over the raw material used which results in savings.
  • As the ready mix concrete plant is totally computerized, it guarantees the delivery of consistent ready mix concrete. The concrete mixed in ready mix concrete plant is not only consistent but accurate in quality and is manufactured as per the proportion of water and other material specified.
  • The ready mix concrete plant minimizes the cement wastage as it manufactures concrete in bulk quantity.
  • The ready mix concrete plant is a centrally located factory on site and so can maintain dust free atmosphere which prevents pollution.

Requirements for installing a Ready Mix Concrete Plant

If you are planning to have a ready mix concrete plant at your construction project site, then there are various factors required to look for which are given below:-

  • Normally, a ready mix concrete plant can have production capacity of 30 m3 /hour but it can vary according to the capacity of the batching plant used.
  • To set up a ready mix concrete plant, around 1 acre land is required.
  • The raw materials of best quality which include cement, aggregates, additives and water are required to produce consistent and high quality ready mix concrete.
  • The other construction equipments required with ready mix concrete plant are concrete batching plant, concrete pump and transit mixer to make your concrete project successful.
    For a typical ready mix concrete plant, around 20 labourers are required.

Thus, the ready mix concrete plant is the best way of producing concrete in large quantities away from the actual construction site. The ready mix concrete plant is very useful for the concrete projects which running in very congested areas where mixing of concrete is not possible. The labour costs involved with ready mix concrete plant is very low and the quality of the concrete is very high. The ready mix concrete plant is best for industrial and residential construction projects where speed with quality is the basic requirement.

What is a Concrete Paver?

A concrete paver is very important construction equipment used in the construction of roads, highways, bridge decks, industrial flooring, cargo handling and dock areas etc. At busy intersections, heavy traffic can cause damage and can cause pavements to deteriorate before time. The concrete pavers are used wherever concrete paving is required for speed and efficiency. Concrete pavements can withstand the loading and turning movements of heavy vehicles. As a result, most of the construction companies have started using concrete pavers while building concrete pavements to give long service life to the areas like busy roads and highways. Paving is not just about laying bricks and pouring concrete on it. Paving needs lot of precision in order to construct the roads which are long lasting and heavy vehicles and harsh weather is not able to harm them. You can save yourself from lot of trouble in future if a reliable concrete paver has been used while concrete paving in your construction project. Concrete pavement has become the most popular way of constructing roads and pathways nowadays because it can sustain any bad weather and temperature changes, and also can provide smooth and finished surfaces for many years.

Fixed Form Concrete Pavers

There are two types of concrete pavers, fixed form concrete pavers and slip form concrete pavers. Here, we are going to explain about the fixed form concrete pavers in detail as the fixed form paving system is the most preferred type of paving system nowadays. In fixed form paving, the metal and wooden forms are used. The metal and wooden forms are set and aligned on a solid foundation and staked rigidly. After the forms are set, they are cleaned and oiled so that they get released from the concrete after the concrete hardens. Then the concrete is deposited and after that it is spread by a fixed form concrete paver. The fixed form concrete paver shape, consolidate and float finish the concrete. After the concrete has been hardened, the metal and wooden forms are removed. There are different types for fixed form concrete paving machines available but the least complex are vibratory screeds and revolving tubes. These hand-operated machines finish the surface of the pavement between fixed forms.

What Features to Look for in a Fixed Form Concrete Paver?

Below mentioned features, you should always look for in a fixed form concrete paver:-

  • The fixed form concrete paver should be able to provide finishing width up to 14.5 meter and minimum 450 sq. Mtr./hour length.
  • It should include hydraulic drive which enables dependable operations.
  • A control unit in a fixed form concrete paver should include all hydraulics and mechanical drives.
  • The steering of fixed form concrete paver should be controlled by levers governing two sets of drive tubes.
  • The fixed form concrete paver should be including four mechanical swivel type jacks with tires for height adjustment fitted at each end of structure as it also helps to position the paver on the forms as well travel in or out of the panel area.
  • Self mounted powerful halogen lamps recharged through battery should be included in the fixed form concrete paver.
  • There should be multiple pass capability in a fixed form paver which can facilitate in levelling high spots and filling surface voids.

You can select the fixed form paver depending on the construction project you are handling.

All About Concrete Plant

Everybody knows the importance of concrete in the construction industry. Concrete is a material which is made using cement, water and other components. Concrete is used in building skyscrapers, buildings, bridges, highways etc. Each construction project needs concrete and before concrete was made manually. It is even made manually nowadays in small construction projects but in big construction projects, concrete plant is used to make concrete. Traditionally, concrete plant is a big structure containing mixers, water heating and cooling systems, admixture systems and other accessories. With the help of concrete plant, concrete is prepared mixing the cement, sand, water, gravel etc. Concrete mixing plays a vital role in the construction industry as the appropriate proportions of cement, sand, water and gravel can create durable concrete product. So, even if there is a minor negligence in concrete, then the construction project can crack easily. So, the concrete mix should be so strong that it can withstand any natural forces like rain, storm etc. Being concrete plant so important for a construction project, it becomes necessary that it is chosen with lot of precision. So, below given are the factors to be considered while choosing a concrete plant:-

How to Choose a Concrete Plant?

A concrete plant is also known as concrete batching plant or concrete mixing plant. Concrete plant can accommodate sand, gravel, cement and water in large quantities to form concrete in bulk. There are different models in concrete plants available and you can choose one as per the requirement of your construction project. Different concrete plants are having different concrete output capacity. If you are building a small construction project then a concrete plant with low concrete output is enough but if you are building a big construction project, then you may need a concrete plant with high concrete output.

Types of Concrete Plant

There are two types of concrete plants, stationery concrete plant and movable concrete plant. In stationery concrete plant, the concrete is mixed and transported to the site whereas, the movable concrete plant, the concrete is prepared while it is being transported. Most of the construction projects use stationery concrete plant also known as compact concrete batching plant, but with the increase in the competition in the construction industry, the construction companies are preferring to use movable concrete plant also known as transit mixers because the concrete needed is only supplied which saves time and the concrete wastage is also reduced. Choosing the right concrete plant of course depends on the distance also. If the distance from the place where concrete is being prepared to the site is less, then stationery concrete plant is in demand as it is easy to maintain and incurs low running cost.

Features of a Concrete Plant

There are various features given below which you should look for before selecting a concrete plant so that you can get quality concrete with speed.

  • High concrete output per hour.
  • Should be producing high concrete quality with minimum cycle time.
  • Concrete plant should consume less energy.
  • Can be easily maintained.
  • Should incur low running cost.
  • Should have high accuracy weighing system.
  • Concrete plant should enable optimum mixing performance.
  • Your concrete plant should be efficient and versatile construction equipment.

Now, when you know about the types of concrete plants and the features you should look for, it becomes easy for you to select the concrete plant which can be of optimum use to your construction project. Just go through the features of the concrete plant you are buying and make sure that you get prompt and accurate after sales services.

Concrete Pump – Find A Perfect Concrete Pump

Concrete pumps are indispensable for certain kinds of construction jobs. Concrete pumps are used to pour liquid concrete in the difficult areas like top of the building, middle of the tunnel etc. The concrete pumps are designed in such a way that they reach in the difficult areas and pour the concrete to make the construction strong and sturdy. Basically, concrete pumps are used for feeding concrete to the construction projects from a long distance as efficiently and effectively as possible. Concrete pumps are used to apply concrete in the areas where concrete mixers cannot reach.

Types of Concrete Pumps

Basically, there are two types of concrete pumps, the boom pump and the line pump. In order to select an appropriate concrete pump for your construction project, it is important to know the difference between the size, functionality and design of both the types of concrete pumps. So, below given is the description of both the types of concrete pumps:-

Boom Concrete Pumps – The boom pumps are stationery concrete pumps which are at the same place for the entire time concrete is being poured on a construction project. The boom pump is ground based concrete pump of large dimension with the crane or boom arm of different lengths. This type of concrete pumps enables to pour liquid concrete on high rise buildings with multiple storeys, which require pouring concrete from high level.

Line Concrete Pumps – The line concrete pump is a compact pump and is used for smaller construction projects. Line pump is usually mounted on the back of a truck or a trailer and so it is known as trailer mounted concrete pump or truck mounted concrete pump. Most of the time, the line pumps are used to fill metal or wood forms into the concrete slabs.

How to Choose A Concrete Pump

Depending on the requirements of a construction project, a concrete pump can be chosen. If you are in search of a right concrete pump to manage your construction project, then below are the factors which should be taken care of:-

Manufacturer of Concrete Pump

Always choose a concrete pump which is manufactured by a trusted manufacturer of concrete pumps. Go through the customer reviews written for the manufacturer online, because if you buy a concrete pump from a trusted manufacturer, then you can be rest assured that you are getting a high quality concrete pump. Most of the concrete pumping jobs are done under lot of pressure and if the quality of concrete pump is not high then it may break down and cause losses to the construction project.


The concrete pump you buy must be fulfilling the purpose of your construction project and should be highly useful to it. If you need to pour liquid concrete into the mid of a long tunnel, and the concrete pump you own is unable to do that because of the lack of that specific feature which can solve that purpose, then that concrete pump is of no use to your construction project. In that case, you need to check that the concrete pump you are buying is versatile and excellent at functionalities.


Last but not the least, the concrete pump you are buying should be priced reasonably and should be performing according to its price. Many times, it happens that you may end up buying underperforming concrete pump at a very high price. So, it becomes necessary to select the concrete pump as per its performance and price.

So, now when you know the types of concrete pumps and the care to be taken while choosing a concrete pump, then buying a concrete pump from a reliable manufacturer Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. would be a great way to ensure that the right equipment is on job at your construction project.

Transit Mixers – Work in Motion

Transit mixers are also known as concrete mixer trucks and are designed in such a way that they work while in transit. Working in transit means that while the transit mixer is travelling to its destination, the concrete is getting mixed. So, the transit mixers help in saving time which makes it a better solution for mixing the concrete. The transit mixers are loaded with dry materials and water and concrete is mixed at the time of transporting. Transit mixer includes a rotating drum, inside which a spiral blade is fitted. When this spiral blade rotates in a direction, the concrete is mixed and when it rotates in the opposite direction, the concrete is thrown out of the drum. Using these transit mixers, the construction workers can mix and distribute the concrete to a place in construction site wherever needed. The benefit of using transit mixer is that it saves time and also maintains the liquid state of the concrete by continuously mixing it until the concrete reaches its destination.

Features to Look for in a Transit Mixer

There are various types of transit mixers available nowadays. All these transit mixers have unique features and they differ in their functionality as well. There are transit mixers available with advanced features and transit mixers available with simplified features also. However, which transit mixer to be chosen by the builder depends on the requirement of the construction project. There are some significant features of a transit mixer which are commonly preferred by concrete construction projects.

  • The drum and spirals of the transit mixers should be having long life.
  • The operations of the transit mixers should be user friendly so that your workers do not find difficulty in operating the transit mixer.
  • There should be maximum discharge of concrete using a transit mixer so that wastage can be avoided. This is possible only if the position of spirals in the drum is properly optimized.
  • The hydraulic pump and motor in the transit mixer should be of best quality.
  • The transit mixer should include hardened rollers which increase the reliability and cover which can provide safety against dust.
  • The transit mixer drum should rotate on machined ring which can achieve concentricity and smooth rotation.
  • The transit mixer should have micro filtration system which can ensure hydraulic and motor protection.
  • The mixing unit of transit mixer should be compact.

Besides the above features, you need to check that the frame length, centre of gravity, height and width of the transit mixer suits to your construction project. Also you need to ensure that you get efficient and reliable round the clock after sale services so that buying transit mixer becomes a profitable investment and not the investment which can incur losses for you. The transit mixers are considered as the most important concrete construction equipment in any construction project since a long time. The transit mixers have contributed a lot in the development at a fast pace. Just need to ensure that you choose the right transit mixer so that it is easy to maintain and you spend low cost in operating which will lead to the success of your construction project.

Choosing the Right Concrete Batching Plant for your Construction Project

Concrete batching plant is required in every construction project as it is needed to mix and blend the ingredients to make concrete. Any ordinary mixing or blending techniques cannot be used to make concrete. It requires specific equipment and that is known as concrete batching plant. When you are looking for a concrete batching plant for your construction project, then it becomes very much necessary to look for the one which has equipment to mix the cement, water and every other admixture needed for the project. Besides mixing equipment, the concrete batching plant should have storage containers which can store the different ingredients required at the construction project. There is lot of competition in the construction industry and to stay ahead of the competition has become a necessity to survive. The construction industry has become challenging now and so the concrete construction equipments to be used are supposed to be more efficient than ever before. There are several things to be looked for while looking for a concrete batching plant because it is the matter of a big investment and so you need to take care that the concrete batching plant should be of optimum use to your construction project.

What to Consider in a Concrete Batching Plant?

There are different types of concrete batching plants available with different sizes and capacities. You need to select a concrete batching plant which suits your construction project. Below are the factors which should be considered before selecting a concrete batching plant:-

  • Just decide on your budget and whether you want to buy concrete batching plant or lease it. The ongoing construction projects may definitely require buying concrete batching plant, whereas, those engaged in one time construction project can lease the concrete batching equipment.
  • Properly study the features included in all types of concrete batching plant and choose the one which suits to your construction project. Most of the time the construction companies choose automatic and semi automatic concrete batching plant which can ease the mixing of concrete and also guarantee the quality. As the mixing process of the concrete is very important for a construction project, the concrete batching plant features are chosen with lot of precision.
  • The concrete batching plants can be found with various sizes and capacities. Choose the one which suits to the scale of your construction project.
  • Examine each and every part of a concrete batching plant and make sure that each and every part is functioning properly. You need to check its cement weighing system, skip hoist, mixer unit, water measuring system etc.
  • Just make sure that the concrete batching plant you choose should have an easy to use control panel so that your men can use the equipment in the most efficient manner.
  • Before buying a concrete batching plant, make sure that the supplier offers after sales services by a specialist in concrete batching equipments so that you do not face problems in operating it.

After going through the above points, it would be easier to choose a concrete batching plant for your construction project. The concrete batching plant can produce high quality cement because the mixture produced by it is consistent. So, always go for a concrete batching plant which can give you quality and speed both.

S-Valve Technology Concrete Pump

A concrete pump is supposed to be reliable, robust, powerful and with less wear and tear in order to successfully complete the tough operations at a construction site. The latest concrete pump using S-valve technology allows pumping with higher concrete pressure to reach higher output at greater heights. Whereas, the wear & tear of the concrete pump using S-Valve technology is also less which results in reduced operation costs. The S-valve technology concrete pump is on high demand in smaller construction sites where those types of concrete pumps are required which can provide versatile services at reduced costs. In the case of big construction projects also S-valve technology concrete pump has been proven to be beneficial because of its capability of handling high rise and long distance with real power. Because of high wear and tear, the gate valve pumps have been outdated and most of the infrastructure companies use S-valve technology concrete pump because of its long life as well as low diesel and hydraulic oil consumption.

Benefits of Using S-Valve Technology Concrete Pump

  • The S-Valve technology concrete pump has proven itself to be the most economical solution while switching from one delivery cylinder to the other.
  • The S-Valve technology concrete pump is with S-transfer tube which has been setting new world records in vertical and horizontal delivery.
  • The S-Valve technology concrete pump is very useful at the sites with concrete pressures above 85 bars.
  • The S-Valve technology concrete pump is specially designed for long life and high concrete pressure.
  • To extend the life of S-Valve technology concrete pump, the inside wall can be rebuilt by hard face welding.
  • The S-Valve technology concrete pump is adorned with low-lying agitator that is driven on both sides, keeps the mix homogeneous and guides the concrete directly in front of the cylinder openings without sucking the air, thus increasing its efficiency.

Manufacturer of S-Valve Technology Concrete Pump

The S-Valve technology concrete pump is being offered by Apollo Infratech, the manufacturer of concrete construction equipment. The S-Valve technology concrete pump manufactured by Apollo Infratech is equipped with highly resistant “S” transfer tube which can pump even the difficult concrete. Below mentioned are the advanced features of S-Valve technology concrete pump which can enable best working at low investment.

  • Latest technology in concrete pumping
  • Longer life due to hard faced design
  • Highly suitable for the requirement of long distance and high rise pumping
  • It has less chance of choking because of its highly effective reverse pumping and leak proof system
  • Adorned with separate concrete and hydraulic pumping system
  • The wear parts can be maintained and refurbished easily
  • Minimum operation costs
  • Can have longer maintenance intervals
  • Easy to clean and very safe


Apollo Infratech – Supplying Concrete Pipes Manufacturing Machines in Indian Market

Apollo Infratech believes that change is the need of the time and so it has joined hands with world’s leading vertical cast pipe machine manufacturer HawkeyePedershaab Concrete Technologies Worldwide and formed a company named Apollo Hawkeye Pedershaab concrete Technologies Pvt. Ltd. This company will be manufacturing concrete pipe manufacturing machines of international standards. These concrete pipe manufacturing machines are also known as RCC pipe manufacturing machines (Reinforced Concrete Cement Pipe manufacturing machines). This joint venture of Apollo Infratech has enabled the company to provide international standard machineries in Indian market at a very competitive rate. In this way, the company has also contributed to the economic growth of the country in infrastructure development.

CAP 150 – Vertical Cast Concrete Pipe Machine

This concrete pipe making machine can enable versatile production of pipe, culverts and complete manhole systems of up to 1500 mm (60”) in diameter for circular units and up to 1500 X 1500 mm (60” X 60”) for square units. This machine will be made in India by Apollo Infratech under the license from HawkeyePedershaab and will be launched in April 2012. This vertical cast concrete pipe machine is manually operated machine and can manufacture high quality concrete pipe, box culverts and complete manhole systems which include reinforced and non-reinforced pipe, circular and non-circular pipe with “bell” or in-wall joint, lined pipe, jacking pipe, box culverts, manhole risers, cones, base sections and cover slabs.

Various optional features can be installed in this concrete pipe machine in order to improve production and handle the machine easily, which are Swivel automation for swivel arm and concrete feeder, including pendant switch for operation of concrete feeder, vibrator and swivel arm, stationery control panel, hydraulic pressing/rocking function, R4 headers, top ring system, lifting hole equipment, reinforcement centering equipment, pneumatic equipment for casting of lined pipe, elevating system, cooling system for the vibrator, double and triple casting stations, hydraulic vibrator and frequency controlled vibrator speed.

This concrete pipe making machine is versatile which enables table vibration or central core vibration and has Falcon control. It is designed with the state-of-the-art components making it suitable for all types of concrete pipes of different shapes and sizes. The capacity of this machine depends on the kind of concrete pipe being produced, the material used and the local conditions. With the help of this machine all concrete pipes and manhole systems are manufactured with an inner lining of PVC, PE or GRP with special mold attachments. This versatile concrete pipe manufacturing plant comes with a special feature of manufacturing more than one pipe diameter per production day due to its build in system for quick mold changes down to 15-30 minutes. This machine is manually operated by 1-2 workers which also depend on the specific products being manufactured, layout of the machine and selected optional features.

So, now by launching this versatile concrete pipe making machine, Apollo Infratech is going to bring a new revolution in concrete pipe manufacturing industry.