QT4 & QT6 Block Making Machine – Global Market

The automatic block making has become critical equipment in all the major sectors of infrastructural development. The major industries utilizing the QT 4 and QT 6 block making machines include the building sector, road construction, garden and landscaping, construction of commercial premises.

Block Making Machine

It is a note worthy fact that there are many different types and models of block making machines available in the market but the QT6 automatic block making machine has the highest demand. This is because the equipment has proved efficient and produces blocks easily and with minimum effort. Some of the important features of the block making equipment include;

  • The logic control system; the best of these machines have the German model of the PLC, with a touch screen interface for ease of operation.
  • Guaranteed safety of the machine through an auto lock system that avoids mechanical accidents that may happen during operation.
  • The block production parameters can always be modified as per the site requirements thus helping in cutting of costs, and preventing material wastage.
  • The machines come equipped with a special air bag cylinder that serves to reduce the vibration and produce high quality blocks.
  • Efficiency and productivity of the equipment is guaranteed.

Factors Driving Demand for QT4 and QT6 Block Making Machines

The demand for the concrete blocks continues to increase in the United States and around the world. There has been a gradual recovery in the construction expenditures across all the market segments. The bricks, blocks and pavers demand have been the main influencers of this demand. The demand for concrete blocks is due to their usage in as a siding material in most residential buildings and primarily in the single family segment.

With this demand for blocks going upwards all over the world, it has caused a proportional rise in demand for the automatic block making machine.

Innovative and Sturdy Equipment Design 

The QT4 block making machine has high efficiency and super strong vibration system that enables the machine realize the required vertical synchronous vibration, frequency conversion and braking.

The concrete block making machine framework is also designed with super strength steel and with special welding technology to guarantee machine durability and performance. With these factors favouring the usage of the block making machines, the global market continues to grow and expand.

Demand in Developing Countries.

In the developing countries such as those in the African continent, the use of concrete blocks serves as the cheaper alternative than construction of the concrete walls. Depletion of the natural stone sources has also led to a shift towards use of the concrete blocks. In expansive residential areas, concrete block making machines are used on site to bake blocks for access roads construction.

Bottom Line

With the rapid investments in infrastructure and construction in many developing countries, there has been an ever increasing demand for the concrete block making machines. Maturation of the international investment market and the rapid infrastructure, the block making machine will continue to be leading construction equipment.

High Demand of Slipform Pavers in Developing Countries

In the last few years there have been witnessed an increase in the demand for the concrete paving equipments all over the world including the developing countries. Most of the newly elected governments go into office having committed themselves to rapidly develop infrastructure which mainly include roads and bridges, affordable housing for marginalized people and expansion of existing facilities.

The demand for the slip form pavers has been steadily increasing as a result of these infrastructural activities. Highways constructions are growing steadily creating the demand pull for this new technology of the slip form pavers.

It is estimated that there is a demand for the slip form pavers ranging from between 620 to 640 machines per annum. Industry analysts are still anticipating strong sales from this healthy increase in demand in the next three to five years. It is notable that the demand has also been supported by the demand for rental equipments and also desire by users for more efficient and productive machinery.

Slipform Pavers

Meeting of Strict Deadlines

In addition to contractors requirements to deliver high quality paving, there is the need to meet the strict deadlines issued by the governments. This has led to a shift from the old model equipments to the newer and more efficient slip form pavers, able to perform various activities simultaneously and also perform multiple functions for offset concrete paving in a monolithic profile, like curbs and side walk constructions, crash barriers with reinforcements, retaining walls construction and many other extra functions.

Demand for Slip form Pavers in Developing Countries

The demand for slip form pavers has mainly been affected by factors such as the machine capacities, output and technological advancements. From the trends observed, the machines able to give greater output have been more preferred over the old model paving systems. Despite there being other supporting projects, like water canals, the main driver of demand still remains roads and kerbs construction.

Successes of the Slipform Pavers in Africa

With majority of the developing countries being in Africa, this region has become an emerging market for slip form pavers India manufacturers. In the North African countries such as Algeria, the slip form paver has been successfully used to build a 1216 km, three lane highways that ultimately link Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. With this innovative technology the project was completed in just three and a half years.

In the nation of Nigeria and the state of Kogi, a new 24 km road was done using the slip form paver technology. This development set a precedent for road construction in the country. This fact is also supported by the fact that areas receiving high rainfall are better served by concrete roads as compared to the bitumen roads which would wear and tear faster.

East African Region

In the east African region, developing countries such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have created a heavy demand for the paving equipment, occasioned by the budgets to construct thousands of kilometers of road.

Important Innovations in Paving Equipment

To enhance efficiency, slip form pavers manufactures have gone to great lengths to ensure that equipment efficiency is guaranteed. Fuel efficiency is one area of Innovation that HEM slip form pavers manufacturer has succeeded. That has served to enhance the product demand since fuel is a major cost in concrete paving.

Concrete Block Making Machines – All about Output and Efficiency

Compared to manual production of concrete blocks, the block making machine has a replaceable gang mould system that produce several blocks per cycle of casting. The concrete block making machines have inbuilt mechanisms that ensure greater strength and performance of the concrete is achieved.

Concrete Block Making Machines

Indigenous block making machines were used in manufacture of larger concrete blocks of both solid and hollow blocks. It was later shown that the size of the aggregate particles affected the quality and strength of the blocks. Concrete with bigger aggregates (greater than 15mm) exhibited segregation and lack of compaction.

New Generation Block Making Machines

To combat this problem there was need to develop a way to achieve better aggregation and compaction. Instead of use of the normal plate vibrator, a technique of pressure vibration was developed to efficiently handle concrete mixes with a wider range of aggregate size and better consistency. This technique has been one of the major efficiency improving innovations in concrete blocks manufacturing. Thus it has been successfully used in stone casting blocks, large size block making and also in making of the traditional aggregate blocks.

Design parameters that enhance efficiency of the Block making machine

Enhanced production efficiency through process innovations and low maintenance costs has been a guiding principle in development of concrete block making machine. The simplicity of the basic design also allows for easier operation and greater productivity.

Mobility of the Machine

There is improved efficiency when the machine is able to set ready blocks at one point and easily move to another position thus eliminating the need for wooden and steel pallets.

Efficiency in Compression

Compression in the block making machine is achieved using hydraulic cylinders which are able to create a much stronger block which still reducing the usage of cement.

The use of high frequency vibrator system achieves greater compaction and the incorporation of powerful motor systems has contributed to enhanced performance. The equipment is also designed to manufacture hollow blocks which are able to save on materials and create an appealing look.

Automatic Block Making Machine

Automation in the concrete industry has led to development of the automatic block making machine. This is an economical machine that delivers high quality blocks in both industrial quantities and special purpose needs. It is generally accepted that the automatic models have two fixed presses able to compress blocks uniformly and with greater force.

Reduced Electrical Installation Needs

The automatic block machine is made with reduced electrical installation requirements and ease of maintenance.  The operating method is designed in such a way to be power efficient and there for quick return on investment.

Flexibility

The ability to develop blocks of different dimensions enhances the flexibility of these block making machines. Latest machines are also equipped with programmable logic control system where specific block dimensions can be set, including batching times and a continuous production process is achieved.

Bottom Line

Technological developments in the concrete industry have enabled the development of machines with greater productivity and profitability. Advances in the design of the block making machines have meant greater output, flexibility in design and also the production of hollow blocks has been made possible.

The Important Role of Concrete Batching Plants in Sustainable Development

Throughout the world there has been much emphasis on the sustainability of each and every project or activity being undertaken. Sustainability in general terms refers to the endurance of systems and processes. Sustainable approaches to construction and development must be sought at all times in order to efficiently manage the resource base from depletion, environmental degradation and even climate change. In other words, sustainable development meets the needs of the present generation without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Concrete Batching Plants

Global Concrete Consumption

Concrete is consumed in massive quantities in the whole world in various activities of building and construction, roads and railways, residential areas and many more. These are important infrastructural requirements that enable the economy to progress rapidly for people to better their living standards.

The preparation methods of concrete must be in such a ways that the demands to the natural environment are kept at minimum for sustainability to be achieved. The concrete batching plant is an equipment used in concrete preparation that has enhanced sustainability in construction.

Energy Efficiency

For sustainable processes to be achieved, efficiency in energy use must be achieved. The Concrete mixing plant is designed to maximize production with reduced energy usage by having highly efficient engines with minimum maintenance requirements and more durability.

Energy saving is also achieved through lower electricity consumption and use of gravity assisted material feeding system as well as computerized controls that precisely calibrate all ingredients of the mixing plant.

Water Conservation during Operation 

In concrete preparations there is heavy water usage in the operation. The batching plant combines all the required materials in mixing of concrete to create a homogenous mix used in construction. Batching equipment is designed in such as way as to ensure optimum usage of water and other materials to achieve a good mix. This includes the ability of some equipment to recycle wet concrete mix before setting and thus reduce wastage.

The Green Technology Equipments

With the development of green commercial concrete plants, the problem of environmental pollution has been effectively tackled.  This model of the ready mix concrete plant increases the material utilization ratio thus creating an overall material saving. Increased material saving from the concrete batching plant in turn increases the productivity and profitability is the operation.

In the current construction industry the demand for increased efficiency is high and the central equipment in this process is the RMC plant or the Ready Mix concrete plant.

In some cases there has been need for all batching equipment to be easily movable to locations closer to construction site to reduce material movement to the site. Some advanced batching equipments may be fitted with twin shaft mixers that increase the production output to up to 160 m3 /hr. The assembly process of the batching plant is also made faster and easy, and with easy to clean concrete handling piping and conveyance systems.

Bottom Line

The concrete batching plant has been important equipment in the construction industry and when effectively used, it has enabled sustainable development to be achieved. More sustainability will be achieved with enhanced technology, water saving initiatives and enhanced efficiency of the batching plants.

Slip Form Paver – Types & Benefits of SlipForm Paving Technology

Slip Form Paver – Unique Technology Machines

The slipform paving is a concrete molding process where concrete is dispensed into a continuously moving mold to attain the required shape or design. This technology is applied in heavy constructions such as roads, bridges and heavy buildings. The main advantage of this technology is the creation of a continuous, “cast in Place” and almost flawless structure that has superior performance over other methods such as molds and discrete blocks.

Slip Form PaverOther Benefits of Slipform Paving

  • They are fast, reliable and produce a much better looking surface that is equally strong.
  • Precise construction is achieved,
  • Reduction in the cost of construction due to high mechanization

Types of slip form pavers Available

Various types of slip form pavers are available in the market depending on the output specifications of each model. Manufacturers of these equipments also classify their machines based on the individual features unique to the equipment. Some of the different functions of these equipments may include;

  • Pavers able to perform convectional paving, offset paving, and custom applications
  • Able to perform automatic width adjustments withoutunnecessary adjustments
  • Half width pavers designed for construction of busy streets and smaller roads with limited supply of concrete, these are also used where larger machines cannot be used.
  • Heavy duty pavers used to recarpet massive projects such as highways, airports, and other heavy jobs. These are sturdily built to create pavements of up to 50cm thick.
  • The slip form pavers may also be specially designed to manufacture continuous kerbs that are strong and appealing.

Technology Involved In Manufacturing Slip Form Pavers

The slip form paving technology is based on the rapid setting properties of concrete material. The technology works on a balance between the quick settings of the concrete and remains workable enough to be molded into the form. This balance is crucial to ensure the final structure is strong and durable.

How the Slip Form Paver Works

The concrete used in this system of paving is very similar to that used in convectional paving systems. It must have a good and uniform consistency having a slump of approximately two inches. This concrete is deposited into the hopper box from where the machine evenly distributes the material across the paving surface. The paver machine helps in achievement of a homogenousmix and compaction through a system of hydraulic or electric vibrators, while the mold helps in forming the slab to the desired thickness and width.

Demandof Slip Form Pavers

The global demand for slip form paving technology continues to increase as more and more pavement roads are required. The market for concrete paving machines is seen to be growing at a rate of 15-20% every year and industry analysts fore see a more rapid growth by the end of year 2017.This is boosted by increasing road networks in various countries ,time bound projects requiring very high efficiency and expansion projects of airports,and residential areas. In India, the government’s plan to construct over 20 kilometers per day of road has created a sufficient demand-pull for these equipments. Some of the global leaders in slipform paver manufacturing includes Apollo Inffratech.

Concrete Block Making Machines – a Boon for the Construction Industry

Concrete block making technology has come a long way from its invention by the ancient Romans. Concrete blocks were initially made manually where each mason would make blocks through special molds designed with the required dimensions. With the slow pace and enormous energy demand for these blocks, there was need for faster manufacturing which led to development of the concrete block making machines.

Operation Technology

The basic technology of the concrete block machine involves molding the concrete and allowing them to set, and cure to form a concrete block. The production process is therefore in a sequence of 4 processes which are mixing, molding, curing and cubing.

Block Design

The shape and design of the concrete block has a great effect on the manufacturing process of these blocks.  In development of new block design careful consideration must be made to retain the cost of production to a minimum.  Complex molding directly translatesto increased production costs. The block making machines are highly efficient in operation and precision to ensure cost of production remains at optimum level. The current machines arefittedwith accurate instruments and timers for profitable operations.

Performance Features

Some importance features to consider in the concrete block making machines can be described as:

  • Machinery capacity, this is the output of the machine per hour. Thisoutput varies depending on the machine size and model with some equipment going up to 40 blocks per cycle.
  • Block making machines are sturdyand rigidly made with minimum vibration to achieve maximum block quality
  • The size of the molding area. This may vary depending on the regulations required from different countries. The size of the molding area can be up to 600 mm *600 mm
  • Depth of block is also variable but can range from 50mm up to 300 mm
  • The power consumption efficiency of the machine.
  • They are fitted with powerful hydraulic drive motor of up to 5 Hp for maximum compression

Concrete Block Making Machines

Advancement in machine technology has led to addition of other features such as vibration motors able to deliver a 0.5 hp, and up to 3000 vibrations per minute. More advanced models are equipped with a travel motor for easier placement of molded blocks.

User Friendliness and Durability

Block making machine is made to be user friendly and easy to operate, this is important for easy training of users on site. The durability is guaranteed through usage of strong steel frame work able to resist the heavy workload on the equipment.

Innovations in the concrete block manufacturing process has led to development of machines that have the ability to manufacture hollow blocks of equal strength characteristics  as the solid blocks. This translates to material efficiency and huge savings to the total cost of materials.

Conclusion

There has been rapid advancement in the concrete block making technology. Block making machines are able to deliver high quality concrete blocks over a short period. The machines are developed to withstand the heavy concrete workload without damage to the equipment. The concrete machines come in various models, and sizes vary depending on the desired throughput.

The Hume Pipe Making Machine Technology – Features & Applications in Infrastructure

The concrete pipe production technology has been fully automated for manufacture of first class quality concrete pipes. The machine has been equipped with advanced control systems that ensure high production efficiency is attained. Products manufactured by the machine include;

  • Concrete pipes compliant with all international standards of piping and construction
  • Production of steel reinforced concrete pipes
  • Prebed pipes
  • Jacking pipes
  • Steel cylinder “core pipes” that can range up to 6 meters length

The equipment can produce pipes from diameters 225mm up to 1600 mm

The equipment has short change over time from one job to another thus ensuring optimum equipment utilization and greater profitability. The compaction of the equipment is computer controlled thus well regulated and structural consistency of the pipes is achieved.

The equipment can be installed with an automatic crane, adjustable floor system and pipe testing capabilities as well as base pallet control system.

Pipe Making Machine

Advanced Features

Current machines are developed with a two directional head system, which enables manufacture of concrete pipe with a good wire and concrete bond as well as great compaction.

The hume pipe making machine is developed with a unique frame design that allows for easier feeding of multiple materials and rapid pipe assembly. This vertical cast process has been found very efficient and with great ability for greater automation.

Ease of Maintenance

The design of the system also enables ease of servicing the equipment as well as access for routine maintenance practices. The total clean up time is effectively reduced since there is less material spillage during production.

Easy Assembly

During construction, the use of the steel pit base shell greatly reduces the total installation time and production starts in shortest time possible.

Various Models

The concrete pipe machine is available in various models based on the desired output capacity, pipe diameter and pipe length.

The cross head drive system and power unit situated on frame at conveyor level for better power transfer and easy service and maintenance. The equipment has also been equipped with noise dampening system to enhance the user friendliness.

Hopper and Conveyor Unit

The capacity of the hopper is based on the size of the machine. It is constructed with innovative rounded corners that help prevent build up of materials during operation. A liner can also be added to enhance flow of material through the equipment.

The conveyor system is driven by rollers, which are completely sealed to prevent ingress of particles and ensure ease of maintenance.

Additional Enhancements

Control system has been developed either as manual or computer aided.  For the automated machine operation, adjustments are made with a touch screen interface in a flexible support system. Innovative video screen monitor have also been added to the control system for monitoring machine performance via installed video cameras.

The oscillating tongue mechanism; this system can also be incorporated, for production of roll- in/ profile jackets. The pipe-making machine can also come with different voltage levels, starter options, and even automatic lubrication system.

 The Hume pipe making technology continues to undergo rapid innovation, which has led to increased range of manufactured products. The machine can produce box culverts, manholes, catch basins and other products requiring this molding technology.

Important Concrete Production Equipments – The Foundation of Concrete Technology

The construction equipment industry has rapidly developed in innovation over the last few years. The turn of the millennium marked the crossroad where existing technology appeared to have reached the climax, and newer operational concepts had started taking shape. The advances in technologies have also been prompted by the need to enhance efficiency and reduction in environmental emissions, which impacted heavily on the engine designs. New and more well engineered designs have achieved much more performance and functions than would have been conceived a decade ago.

Some of the greatest developments discussed here include-

Slip form Paver

Slip form paving is among the recent and now widely accepted technologies in infrastructure development. The slip form paver is an equipment that can perform several tasks such as;

  • finish grading
  • disperse concrete on the sub grade
  • Vibration
  • Concrete shaping
  • Trim surface to the desired thickness
  • Create surface uniformity

Slip form paving

The equipment uses concrete of a similar grade to that used in convectional paving systems. It must have the same consistency and uniform slump of approximately two inches. The prepared mix is fed into the hopper box or deposited in front of the machine. The material goes through the vibrators, tampers and oscillators after which it is extruded through a metering system extending the width of the surface to achieve a uniform surface conformation.

The slip form paver is equipped with a modern control system that has increased the machine efficiency of operation. The equipment has intelligent electronic controls for precise driving and concrete processing system to achieve high precision in paving.

Concrete Batching Plant

This machine is one of the most important equipments in the construction industry. The final strength, consistency and durability of concrete is dependent on the efficiency of the batching plant. The machine is equipped with an advanced and computer aided operation system which regulates the weights of aggregate, sand, cement, additives and water. The machine also regulates the mixing time for each recipe depending on the requirements of the concrete.

concrete batching plant

The concrete batching plants operate in two categories, which are the ready mix concretes and the central mix batching plant.

The introduction of computer aided batching processes has been one of the greatest advancements in concrete processing. It means that material mixing can easily be altered to changing requirements, and modified to achieve greater throughput, while reducing the operation cost.

Block Making Machine

These equipments come in various models depending on the type of blocks desired. The machine lays blocks with high efficiency and low on maintenance, therefore delivers quick and easy blocks production.

Block Making Machine

It has eliminated the need for wooden and steel pallets, the mould and the Ram mechanism are hydraulic operated and achieves stronger blocks with less cement usage. These modifications have enables consistent in quality and size of blocks. The block making machine is able to achieve pressures of up to 2000 Psi for maximum compaction. The equipment has advanced vibrators that also enhance the compaction of the equipment.

All about the Batching Plant

The batching plant is an equipment that efficiently combines the various ingredients to make up concrete. The ingredients are sand, aggregate, water, air, cement, fly ash, and silica fume. These ingredients are mixed at different ratios depending on the final type of desired concrete.  There are two main types of batching plants, which are the dry mix and the wet mix plants.

Main Components of the Batching Plant

Important components of the plant include the cement batchers, aggregate batchers, conveyors, aggregate bins, heaters, chillers, cement silos, batch control panels and dust collectors. At the center of the batching plant is the mixer, which is a key component of the equipment. The mixer can be; tilt drum, Planetary, pan, single shaft and the twin shaft mixers. Each type of mixer orientation has its special advantages.

Concrete Batching Plant

Features of the Dry Mix Concrete Plant

For efficient and effective operation, the modern batching plant has been highly automated and utilizes computer aided controls to precisely deliver and mix each ingredient according to the preset ratio.

The exact proportion of aggregate, cement, water and admixture are fed into the drum by selecting the preferred mixing code from the control panel.

Weighing of each constituent is done by sensitive load cells attached to the hopper, therefore accurate mixing is achieved.

Operation of the Concrete Batching Plant

In operation, the concrete batching plant has 4 key components. These are the gravel feed; Powder feed component (cement, fly ash, bulking agents), water and feed additives, transmission and storage. The basic operation procedure of the machine can be defined as,

  • System Activation; the mixing formula is input through the control panel, this also includes the concrete slump, grade and productivity. This is the calibration that will be used for the individual components of the mix.
  • The hoppers are tested and calibrated for accuracy before the operation begins
  • The belt conveyor is initiated to transmit the aggregate to the weighing hopper.
  • The control valve of the water sump and admixtures are opened to allow water and admixtures to flow into weighing hopper.
  • Once all weights have met the required volumes the doors of the weighing hoppers is opened automatically.
  • The materials are released into the mixer where mixing continues until the setting time is over. The loading doors are then opened and the mix flows into a concrete mixer truck.
  • This process is done very carefully to ensure the concrete does not segregate , and it must be used before the preliminary setting time of 30 – 45 minutes is reached.

Specifications of the Dry Batching Plants

Dry batching plants typical production capacity of the equipment can range from 25 cubic meters /hr to 100 cubic meters/hr. The discharging capacity can also range from 500lts up to 2000l/hr, aggregate size of 80/60 pebble/macadam. The weighing accuracy of the machine is guaranteed  with an accuracy of + or – 2% of aggregate while that of cement, fly ash, water and additives have an accuracy of + or – 1 %.

Innovative Concrete Machines with Great Returns and Durability

The rapid growth in the construction and infrastructure has meant increased demand in concrete pipes and products in general. Equipment used in manufacture of these products has equally advanced. Some of these machines include:

Cage Welding Machine

This is equipment designed for manufacture of circular cages used in production of precast concrete poles, concrete pipes, culverts, columns and bored piles. Advanced technology has led to manufacture of innovative machines able to produce oval, round with spigot as well as square cages. It is also possible to, manufacture conical as well as cages with flattened sides.

Cage Welding Machine

The Cage Welding Machine dimensions range from 220mm by 1700mm to 900mm by 5200mm and even more. Lengths can also vary widely depending on the usage.

Features of the Cage Welding Machine

The machine is has a winding wire pitch that can handle 80/100 KVA up to 100/125 KVA. It is also equipped with an ultra modern touch panel with a programmable logic control that ensures efficiency and ease of operation.

Design of Cage-Making Machine

With increased variability in the design and models of cages, machine design has also advanced significantly that unique cages can be made, with lower investment amount required. The cage making machines market is also bound to continue expanding as infrastructure developments continue to increase globally.


Block Making Machine

The equipment has a robust construction with very rigid frame that only the synchronized vibration will occur during production and interfere with the quality of the product.

The equipment also has high production capacity while requiring minimal maintenance therefore higher return on investment. The equipment is recommended for production at industrial level as well as manufacture of special pieces.

Block Making Machine

It is equipped with two fixed presses that achieve sufficient compression for high quality blocks.

Traditionally , these block making machine required very heavy wiring and electrical installations, however , the current design requires much less fittings thereby adapting to the needs of business people who are starting out as well as those in continuing production.

In addition, the stationery-synchronized press is rigid and very easy use, as it has been highly automated. Instead of moving the whole machine, only the trays are in motion, therefore will take up lesser space.

Pipe Making Machine

The demand for the concrete pipe globally has grown rapidly and even exceeding the supply level. There is therefore a high likelihood of deterioration in quality as manufacturers compete to fulfill their orders. This must never happen and buying the highest quality pipe-making machine is the only solution.

Pipe Making Machine

While looking for a pipe production machine, some important features and innovations increase the efficiency of the equipment. These include;

  • The design of the hoppers and conveyors; They are manufactured with rounded corners that prevent material build up during production.
  • Incorporation of turntable assembly with tapered support rollers for greater support and centering
  • A self-cleaning top table that has a fully machined bottom surface as well as captive fasteners for accurate attachment of the top centering plates, tongue formers and O-ring groovers,
  • Incorporation of a changeover table that supports the roller head assembly and the top centering ring during change over, maintenance and machine clean up.

The modifications and innovation in these equipments has enabled efficient and high quality production of concrete pipes that are guaranteed in performance and durability.